The Parton name was proposed by Richard Feynman in 1969 as a generic description for any particle constituent within the proton, neutron and other hadrons. These particles are referred today as quarks and gluons.
Quarks possess a property called colour charge. There are three types of colour charge. Each quark carries a colour. The system of attraction and repulsion between coloured quarks is called strong interaction, which is mediated by force carrying particles known as gluons. Gluons, like the photons are massless, have a spin of 1 and no electric charge but carry colour charge. The theory that describes strong interactions is called Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).
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